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 Expression of Interest (Eoi) and Request for Technical Proposals

To Develop Climate Change Action Plans and an Enabling Policy and Regulatory Framework at County Level

Terms of Reference for Development of Climate Change Action Plans and an Enabling Policy and Regulatory Framework for Nandi and Nakuru Counties


A. Background Information

1. Introduction

Founded in 1977 by Professor Wangari Maathai the Green Belt Movement’s (GBM) work has focused on conserving the environment by empowering rural African women and their families and creating sustainable livelihoods. To date, over 51 million trees have been planted and hundreds of thousands of women have been empowered and experienced improved family incomes. Underpinning GBM’s work has been a fundamental understanding that when people understand the linkages between their actions and their livelihood situations (poverty, water scarcity, soil loss and food insecurity) they are more likely to muster their energies and take action for change. Today GBM still uses tree planting as an entry point into communities. This simple act enables the work with women and their communities, to start to address the root causes of the complex problems they face. Through GBM’s community empowerment and education approach, GBM takes women and men from their communities through a process of identifying their problems, understanding where they come from, and together exploring solutions. This approach is a powerful way for issues to be identified and linkages understood. It is also during these seminars that communities experience an awakening that they can do something about their situation(s).

2. Project background

Climate change will also impact economies. The Stern Review affirms that economic losses emanating from declining agricultural production, droughts, flooding, and disease and soil erosion could lead to a significant decline in gross domestic product (GDP), with low-income countries bearing the brunt of these losses. Using the results from formal economic models, the Review estimates that if no action is taken to address climate change, “the overall costs and risks of climate change will be equivalent to losing at least 5 per cent of global GDP each year”, which could rise to 20 per cent of GDP or more if a wider range of risks and impacts is taken into account. The foregoing are just but few examples to show that climate change is a global problem, and that it is no longer being viewed as just an environmental issue, but one that can impact a nation’s overall development. Indeed, climate change has now been recognised by the United Nations and the wider international community as a key development challenge (Kenya climate change action plan).

Climate change and climate variability pose major threats to the environment, to economic growth and to sustainable development. Africa is the continent least responsible for climate change but it is the most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change.

The negative effects include reduced agricultural production, reduced food security, increased incidences of flooding and droughts, widespread disease epidemics, and increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. Africa’s vulnerability is aggravated by the interaction of ‘multiple stresses’ occurring at various levels, coupled with the continent’s low adaptive capacity, which impact the continent’s prospects for long-term economic growth and sustainability. In Kenya, the adverse impact of climate change is compounded by local environmental degradation caused by illegal encroachments, deforestation and livestock grazing. Forest cover, for instance, has fallen from 12 per cent in the 1960s to 2 per cent today.

Kenya, like other African countries, is currently bearing the brunt of climate risks and there is need for a coordinated approach to address the related vulnerabilities and risks. Kenya has been at the forefront of advocating for action against climate change, launching a National Climate Change Response Strategy in 2010, a National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) in 2013, and a comprehensive National Climate Change Framework Policy and Bill that are in their final stages of enactment. In addition, Kenya is currently finalising its National Adaptation Plan (NAP). These are all in accordance with the Constitution of Kenya, which guarantees the right to a clean and healthy environment under the bill of rights.

The NCCAP and draft NAP together detail mitigation and adaptation actions to mainstream climate change across all Medium Term Plan II1 (MTP II) sectors and realise a low carbon, climate-resilient development pathway for Kenya. Sustainable development cannot be realised without addressing the needs of and empowering women, youth and other vulnerable groups – hence, this a priority cross-cutting issue across the different MTP sectors, as well as the NCCAP and draft NAP.

The Green Belt Movement through funding from International Climate Initiative (IKI) plans to implement a project on implementing strategies for regional transition to low emission rural development in Kenya. The project is consistent with the ongoing government initiatives on low carbon emissions in the country, for instance the government-led process for estimating land-based emissions in Kenya which will build into a carbon monitoring programme. Kenya has developed a forest conservation and management bill which will provide for the establishment, development and sustainable management (including conservation and rational utilization) of all forest resources for the social-economic development of the country and this project informs this process. There are also a number of other policy frameworks that aim at supporting low-emission rural development. Kenya recently reviewed its constitution in 2010 and the document establishes a goal of increasing tree cover to 10% nation-wide. Further, the document guarantees the right to a clean and healthy environment, establishing a legal basis for climate change action and mitigation. The country also has developed and adopted a National Climate Change Action plan which outlines the government’s priorities in responding to climate change. Additionally, there is the new climate change Act 2016, which will support the implementation of climate programs in Kenya. The Act will provide an effective platform for coordination of climate change activities in the country. Kenya also has a National Climate Change Response strategy in place. The document gives the direction that Kenya wants to take in response to climate change. Kenya is one of the few African countries that has already submitted an INDC.

This document indicates that Kenya aims to achieve a low-carbon, climate-resilient development pathway, and to reduce its GHG emissions in accordance with its National Climate Change Action Plan, including the implementation of mitigation activities across the energy, LULUCF, transport, agriculture, waste and industrial sectors. Technical expertise is needed for Kenya to monitor and account for its emissions reductions, and that is one objective this project aims to achieve through trainings and capacity-building workshops.

The National Climate Change Action Plan was developed before the new constitutional dispensation which gave rise to County Governments. Most of the government functions are getting devolved to the counties and it is in line with this development that counties need to be prepared to handle many more devolved functions and one of the key areas that need attention is the area on environment. The counties need to take more responsibility in management of their environment and although the country has a National Climate Change Action Plan in place, it is important for the County Governments to come up with county specific climate change action plans.

The Green Belt Movement intends to support the development of county climate change action plans for Nakuru and Nandi counties through this project.

3. Project goal

The project (a transition to LED-R) is expected to achieve a range of environmental, social and economic co-benefits. Environmental Co-benefits: Reductions in deforestation and forest degradation and increases in forest regeneration generally have positive effects on local soil resources, local and regional hydrological regimes, water resources, climate, and terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity. These co-benefits include:

- Reduced occurrence of fire in non-forest environments
- Improved or maintained hydrological system
- Reduced soil compaction
- Diminished forest fragmentation
- Increased stream health (especially if forests in riparian zones are protected or reforested)
- Improved watershed function
- Improved habitat for terrestrial biodiversity

4. Social and Economic Co-benefits

The project approach targets social and economic drivers of deforestation, and thereby seeks to synergize social and environmental benefits to drive an enduring shift to LED-R. Potential social/economic co-benefits associated with these objectives include:

- Agricultural Productivity: More dependable/predictable local/regional climate leads to more stable agricultural income

- Participation: Greater inclusion of the concerns and interests of women and indigenous peoples, through their participation in multi-sectoral regional planning processes

- Policy Alignment: Increased compliance with social and environmental legislation resulting from alignment of policies and programs for delivery of economic incentives to producers and other actors

- Territorial Security: Assertion/defense of land tenure & territorial/customary rights, resulting from increased participation of indigenous people (IP) and traditional communities (TC) in multi-sectoral dialogues

- Improved Human Well-Being and Food Security: Increased food and fuel security and alternative incomes sources (e.g., ecotourism, NTFPs, fisheries) through changes in production systems

- Health: Improvements in health (respiratory, water quality, nutrition)—resulting from improved environmental conditions, agricultural productivity, and/or improved income opportunities

- Accountability and Equity: Increased accountability of governments and companies to regional stakeholders and increased reputational and political risk of failure to follow-through with agreed upon plans due to transparent monitoring systems developed by the project (e.g. TPS, regional university networks). This could result in general improvements in the provision of services, including extension, health, infrastructure, and education. Further, equitable incorporation of smallholders, traditional and indigenous people into formal economy, as a result of more equitable terms of engagement and improved capacity of IP and TC to negotiate with other stakeholders

B. Terms of Reference

The Green Belt Movement with support from the International Climate Initiative (IKI) and other development partners is desirous of putting in place mechanisms to enhance the implementation of the National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) for the selected counties of Nandi and Nakuru. In this regard, GBM intends to develop a comprehensive County Climate Change Action Plans.

The Action Plan has Three (03) subcomponents which are not only distinct but are also closely linked and interrelated.

1) The subcomponents are:
Subcomponent 1: Long-term County Low Carbon Development Pathway. This is designed to facilitate reflection and/or mainstreaming of climate change aspects in the counties integrated plans and it’s Medium Term Plans (MTP). It also seeks to identify key elements of the counties low-carbon and climate resilient growth.

Sub-component 2: Enabling Policy and Regulatory Framework. This aims to review County and National policy and legislative instruments relating to climate change with a view of developing a policy and /or legislative framework that promotes coherence, coordination and cooperative governance of climate change issues at the county levels.

Subcomponent 3: County Adaptation Plan. Recognizing that adaptation is a priority, this sub-component aims to identify priority immediate, medium and long-term adaptation actions in order to develop County Adaptation Plan.

2) Objectives of the Assignment
The main objective of the consultancy is to develop enabling regulatory framework to support climate change actions and a comprehensive County Climate Change Action Plans. The resultant outcome shall constitute the following:
i) Policy framework for climate change actions for Nandi and Nakuru Counties
ii) Appropriate regulatory framework to enhance implementation

3) Scope of Work
The consultancy will follow a two-stage approach:
Stage 1 will involve reviews and the development of enabling regulatory framework
Stage 2 will have a specific focus on the formulation of the Climate Change Policy and Regulatory Framework with recommendations as to how it will deliver at the county levels

  • Stage 1: Tasks to be performed under Stage 1

The tasks to be performed under stage 1 include:
(i) Review of existing umbrella and sectoral policies, legislation and strategies in Kenya, or elsewhere, highlighting strengths and weaknesses relative to the climate change context at County levels and identify gaps

(ii) Review of the current institutional and technical capacity to enhance coordination and implementation of climate change actions, identifying strengths and any areas for improvement. Make recommendations to inform the policy and regulatory framework

(iii) Organize stakeholders forums in both counties to carry out needs assessment in relation to environmental conservation and climate change and organize the outcome into thematic areas

  • Stage 2: Tasks to be performed under Stage 2

The actual formulation of enabling policy and regulatory framework based on outcomes of Stage 1. is expected to include the following elements:
(i) A County Climate Change Action Plan
(ii) A Regulatory Framework to enhance coordination and implementation of climate change actions. Convene the policy makers in both counties and form working groups based on the thematic areas

C. Expected Output

The expected output of this consultancy is to develop a National Climate Change Policy and Regulatory Framework. In particular, the consultancy shall deliver on the following:
(i) Analysis of various policies, legislation and strategies with recommendations on the focus of enabling policy and regulatory framework at County level
(ii) A Report on existing institutional and technical capacities with associated capacity development plan and recommendations on the most appropriate model to enhance coordination and implementation
(iii) A final training module, incorporating comments from other stakeholders plus any other technical/professional information deemed necessary or that would be expected in a module of this nature under normal circumstances
(iv) Work with the County Governments in development of respective Climate Change Action Plans
(v) A County Climate Change Action plan
(vi) A Regulatory Framework to ensure implementation of climate change actions

D. Duration and Timeline

The assignment is expected to be completed in 6 months from the date of commencement.

E. Reporting

The consultant(s) will report on all administrative issues of this consultancy to Mercy Karunditu.

F. Submission of Technical and Financial Proposals

The Green Belt Movement invites proposals from eligible consultant(s), with valid experience in climate change and landscape restoration. Proposals should be submitted electronically.Acceptable formats include Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and PDF. Technical proposal to undertake the consultancy, including a concept note of not more than 8 pages on the planned approach should be sent by 27th March 2017 to Mercy Karunditu, Green Belt Movement –

The technical and financial proposal should include the following information:

1. Consultant’s specific experience (please attach CVs of the key personnel to be deployed and the Lead Consultant)
2. Description of methodology to be adopted for each component
3. A work plan and time frame

4. A budget indicating fees and costs for logistics

Minimum requirements

- Extensive experience in developing action plans, climate change, Forestry and Environment
- Higher degree in Environment, forestry or related areas
- Training on environmental issues will be an added advantage
- Good oral and written communication skills
- Strong organizational skills and ability to work with minimal supervision
- Available to start work at short notice.

GBM is an equal opportunity employer and canvassing will lead to disqualification.